UN World Youth Report





Abrar, Chowdhury Rafiqul, and Janet Seeley, eds. (2009). Social Protection and Livelihoods: Marginalised Migrant Workers of India and Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press Limited.

Altbach, Philip G., Liz Reisberg and Laura E. Rumbley (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution—A Report Prepared for the UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Available from http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/trends-global-higher-education-2009-world-conference-en.pdf.

Banerjee, Abhijit V., and Andrew Newman (1993). Occupational choice and the process of development. Journal of Political Economy, vol. 101, No. 2 (April), pp. 274-298.

Batista, Catia, Tara McIndoe-Calder and Pedro Vicente (2012). Return migration and entrepreneurship in Mozambique. Available from http://www.pedrovicente.org/mozmig.pdf.

Bhattarai, Prakash (2005). Migration of Nepalese Youth for Foreign Employment: Problems and Prospects (A Review of Existing Government Policies and Programmes). Siphal: Youth Action Nepal. Available fromhttp://www.youthaction.org.np/userfiles/file/Research%20Report%20on%20Labor%20Migration.pdf.

Black, Richard, Claudi Natali and Jessica Skinner (2005). Migration and inequality. Background paper for Equity & Development: World Development Report 2006. Available fromhttp://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2006/Resources/477383-1118673432908/Migration_and_Inequality.pdf.

Brinkerhoff, Jennifer M. (2009). Digital Diasporas: Identity and Transnational Engagement. New York: Cambridge University Press.

British Broadcasting Corporation News (2007). Key facts: Africa to Europe migration. Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6228236.stm.

Bué Fixe (2013). Youth Media: Our Response to HIV/AIDS. London, One Young World. Available from http://www.oneyoungworld.com/ambassador-projects/youth-media-our-response-hivaids.

Calderon, Jaime, Barbara Rijks and Dovelyn Rannveig Agunias (2012). Asian labour migrants and health: exploring policy routes. Issue in Brief, No. 12 (June). Bangkok and Washington, D.C.: International Organization for Migration and Migration Policy Institute. Available from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/MigrationandHealth.pdf.

Campbell, John R. (2009). Caught Between the Ideology and Realities of Development: Transiting from the Horn of Africa to Europe. Migration Studies Unit Working Papers, No. 2009/01. London: London School of Economics and Political Science, Migration Studies Unit. Available from http://www.lse.ac.uk/government/research/resgroups/MSU/documents/workingPapers/campbell.pdf.

Canoy, Marcel, Ricklef Beutin, Anna Horvath, Agnes Hubert, Frédéric Lerais, Peter Smith, and Myriam Sochacki (2006). Migration and public perception. Brussels: European Commission, Bureau of European Policy Advisers. Available fromhttp://ec.europa.eu/dgs/policy_advisers/publications/docs/bepa_migration_final_09_10_006_en.pdf.

Castles, Stephen, and Raúl Delgado Wise (2008). Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. Geneva: International Organization for Migration. Available from http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=84.

Chi, Guangqing, and Paul Voss (2005). Migration decision-making: a hierarchical regression approach. The Journal of Regional Analysis & Policy, vol. 35, No. 2. Available from http://www.jrap-journal.org/pastvolumes/2000/v35/F35-2-2.pdf.

Costanza‐Chock, Sasha (2011). Digital popular communication: lessons on information and    communication technologies for social change from the immigrant rights movement.          National Civic Review, vol. 100, No. 3 (fall), pp. 29-35.

de Haas, Hein (2006). Engaging diasporas: how governments and development agencies can support diaspora involvement in the development of origin countries. Oxford, United Kingdom: University of Oxford, International Migration Institute, June. Available from http://www.imi.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/engaging-diasporas-hein-de-haas.pdf.

De la Garza, Rodolpho (2010). Migration, development and the children left behind:  multidimensional perspective. Social and Economic Policy Working Paper, May 2010, United Nations Children’s Fund.

Department for International Development (2010). Youth Participation in Development: A Guide for Development Agencies and Policy Makers. London: DFID–CSO Youth Working Group. Available fromhttp://ygproject.org/sites/default/files/6962_Youth_Participation_in_Development.pdf.

Deshingkar, Priya, Adriana Castaldo and Farai Jena (2012). Youth migration and remittances: data, causes and effects. Working paper, GMG-UNICEF series on youth migration (forthcoming).

Deshingkar, Priya, and Sven Grimm (2005). Internal Migration and Development: A Global Perspective. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 19. Geneva: International Organization for Migration. Available fromhttp://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/68.pdf.

Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty (2009). Making Migration Work for Development. Sussex, United Kingdom. Available fromhttp://www.migrationdrc.org/publications/misc/Making_Migration_Work_for_Development.pdf.

DeWind, Josh, and Jennifer Holdaway (2008). Migration and Development Within and Across Borders: Research and Policy Perspectives on Internal and International Migration. Geneva and New York: International Organization for Migration and Social Science Research Council. Available from http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/SSRC.pdf.

Dustmann, Christian, and Oliver Kirchkamp (2002). The optimal migration duration and activity choice after re-migration. Journal of Development Economics, vol. 67, pp. 351-372. Available fromhttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpb21/Cpapers/optimalmigrationduration.pdf.

Düvell, Franck, and Ferruccio Pastore, eds. (n.d.). Transit, migration and politics: trends and constructions on the fringes of Europe. EU Network on International Migration, Integration and Social Cohesion (INISCOE) and Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS). Available from


Esipova, Neli, Julie Ray and Anita Pugliese (2011). Gallup World Poll: The Many Faces of Global Migration. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 43. Geneva: International Organization for Migration in collaboration with Gallup. Available fromhttp://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/MRS43.pdf.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2009). EU-MIDIS: European Union minorities and discrimination survey. Available from http://fra.europa.eu/en/project/2011/eu-midis-european-union-minorities-and-discrimination-survey

Foresight (2011). Migration and Global Environmental Change: Future Challenges and Opportunities—Final Project Report. London: Government Office for Science. Available from http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/foresight/docs/migration/11-1116-migration-and-global-environmental-change.pdf.

Garrett, Katherine E., ed. (2006). Living in America: Challenges Facing New Immigrants and Refugees. Prepared for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation by Lake Snell Perry Mermin/Decision Research. Available fromhttp://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/21623.pdf.

Global Migration Group (2011). Enhancing cooperation on the protection of unaccompanied migrant children and youth—United Nation Children’s Fund, International Organization for Migration and United Nations High Ccommisioner for Refugees. Briefing paper prepared for the Global Migration Group (GMG) Symposium, New York, 17-18 May 2011. Available from http://www.globalmigrationgroup.org/uploads/news/2011-symposium/Briefing_Paper_Session_5.pdf.

(2013). Human Rights of Undocumented Adolescents and Youth. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants, Universidad Nacional De Lanus and United Nations Children’s Fund. Available from http://www.globalmigrationgroup.org/uploads/gmg-topics/mig-data/Human-Rights-of-Undocumented-Adolescents-Youth.pdf.

(n.d.). Return migration. Available from http://www.globalmigrationgroup.org/en/enhancing-governance-of-labour-and-return-migration/return-migration.

Granovetter, Mark S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 78, No. 6 (May), pp. 1,360-1,380. Available from http://sociology.stanford.edu/people/mgranovetter/documents/granstrengthweakties.pdf.

Green, Eric, and Bret Kloos (2009). Facilitating youth participation in a context of forced migration: a PhotoVoice project in northern Uganda. Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 460-482. Abstract available fromhttp://jrs.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/4/460.short.

Ha, Wei, Junjian Yi and Junsen Zhang (2009). Inequality and internal migration in China: evidence from village panel data. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Research Paper 2009/27. Available fromhttp://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/papers/HDRP_2009_27.pdf.

Hamel, Jean-Yves (2009). Information and communication technologies and migration. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Research Paper 2009/39. Available fromhttp://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/papers/HDRP_2009_39.pdf.

Haug, Sonja (2008). Migration networks and migration decision-making. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 585-605. Available fromhttp://crcw.princeton.edu/migration/files/library/Migration%20Networks%20and%20Migration%20Decision-Making.pdf.

HSBC (2013). Study costs most in Australia, 13 August. Available from http://www.hsbc.com/news-and-insight/2013/study-costs-most-in-australia.

International Labour Organization, NORMLEX (n.d.). C097 – Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97). Available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12000:0::NO:::.

(n.d.). C143 – Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention (No. 143). Available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12000:0::NO:::.

(n.d.). C189 - Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). Available from http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/domestic-workers/lang--en/index.htm.

International Labour Organization and Youth Employment Network (2006). How to engage youth in policy-making? In Joining Forces with Young People: A Practical Guide to Collaboration for Youth Employment. The European Youth Forum on behalf of the International Coordination Meeting for Youth Organisations and the Youth Employment Network. Available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/yen/downloads/youthguide/part3_how.pdf

International Organization for Migration (2000). World Migration Report 2000. International Organization for Migration and United Nations. Available from http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/WMR_2000_edited.pdf.

(2002).Gender and migration. Gender factsheet. Available from http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/brochures_and_info_sheets/gender_factsheet_en.pdf.

(2004). International Migration Law: Glossary on Migration. Geneva. Available from http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/Glossary_eng.pdf.

(2005). Migrant Training: Generic Guide for Practitioners. Geneva. Available from http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/activities/facilitating/Migrant_Training_Generic_Guide_for_Practitioners.pdf.

(2006). International migration and development: perspectives and experiences of the International Organization for Migration. Available from http://www.un.int/iom/IOM%20Perspectives%20and%20Experiences.pdf.

(2010a). Third Youth Dialogue on Migration: towards national development through managed migration. Events listing, Zimbabwe, 27-28 July 2010. Available from https://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/news-and-views/events/events-listing/third-youth-dialogue-on-migration-ldqu.html.

(2010b).  Third Youth Dialogue on Migration promotes youth’s engagement in national efforts to address migration and development challenges, IOM Zimbabwe Newsletter, 3rd quarter, 2010, p. 4, Harare. Available from iomzimbabwe.org (IomZimNewsletter2010Q3.pdf).

(2011). Migration Health Report of Activities 2010. Geneva. Available from http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=41_7&products_id=737.

(2011). World Migration Report 2011: Communicating Effectively about Migration. Geneva. Available from http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/WMR2011_English.pdf.

(2012). Egypt: facts and figures. Available from http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/where-we-work/africa-and-the-middle-east/middle-east-and-north-africa/egypt.html.

(2012). Migration Policy Practice, vol. 2, No. 6 (December 2012 - January 2013). International Organization for Migration and Eurasylum Ltd. Available fromhttp://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/MigrationPolicyPracticeJournal8_27Dec2012.pdf.

(n.d.(a)). Key migration terms. Available from http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/about-migration/key-migration-terms.

(n.d.(b)). Best practices: IOM’s migrant training/pre-departure training programs. Available from http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/activities/facilitating/Best-Practices-Migrant-Training.pdf.).

(n.d.(c)). Migrant training—introduction: key issues, challenges and essential facts and figures. Available from http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/what-we-do/migrant-training.html.

International Organization for Migration, Regional Office in Egypt (2013). Consultation on youth and transit migration. Input for the 2013 United Nations World Youth Report.

Khanlou, Nazilla, Morton Beiser, Marlinda Freire, Ilene Hyman, Kenise Murphy Kilbride and I. Khanlou (2002). Mental Health Promotion among Newcomer Female Youth: Post-Migration Experiences and Self-Esteem. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.

Korean Educational Development Institute (2012). Student mobility. Background paper prepared for the UNESCO-KEDI Regional Policy Seminar 2012: Education Policy-Making in the Age of Migration in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, 10-12 July 2012. Available from http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/epr/Quality/UNESCO-KEDI_Seminar_2012_-_Background_paper_-_Mobility_-_Final_-_REVISED.pdf.

Kundu, Amitabh, and Lopamudra Ray Saraswati (2012). Migration and exclusionary urbanisation in India. Economic & Political Weekly, vol. 47, Nos. 26-27 (30 June).

Lamport, Joe (2004). The housing problem of immigrants. Gotham Gazette, 9 November. Available from http://old.gothamgazette.com/article/housing/20041109/10/1175.

Liebig, Thomas, and Sarah Widmaier (2009). Children of immigrants in the labour markets of EU and OECD countries: an overview. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 97. DELSA/ELSA/WD/SEM(2009)25. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available from http://www.oecd.org/berlin/43880918.pdf.

Martin, Susan Forbes (2004). Women and migration. Paper prepared for the Consultative Meeting on Migration and Mobility and How This Movement Affects Women, held by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women in Malmö, Sweden, from 2 to 4 December 2003. CM/MMW/2003/WP.1. Available from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/meetings/consult/CM-Dec03-WP1.pdf.

McKenzie, David J. (2007). A profile of the world’s young developing country migrants. Institute for the Study of Labor, Discussion Paper No. 2948. July. Available from http://ftp.iza.org/dp2948.pdf.

McKenzie, Sean, and Cecilia Menjívar (2011). The meanings of migration, remittances and gifts: views of Honduran women who stay. Global Networks, vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 63–81 (January).

Mesnard, Alice (2004). Temporary migration and capital market imperfections. Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 242-262. Paper available from http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/conferences/2000-oia/pdfpapers/mesnard.pdf.

Neill, Carey (2012). Modern migrants—global trends in student mobility. UIS-AIMS News, 31 October. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok Office. Available fromhttp://www.unescobkk.org/resources/aims/efanews0/news-details/article/modern-migrants-global-trends-in-student-mobility/.

North-South Centre of the Council of Europe (2013). Call for participants: 4th Training Course for Youth Leaders of the African Diaspora Living in Europe, Hammamet, Tunisia, 1-8 July 2013. Available fromhttp://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/Youth/2013_Call_Participants_4AfricanDiasporaTrainngCourse.pdf.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (n.d.). Text of the 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol, article 33, para. 1. Available from http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.html.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2013a). iLibrary, OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics database. Available from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/employment/data/oecd-employment-and-labour-market-statistics_lfs-data-en 2013).Accessed 3 September 2013

(2013b). International Migration Outlook 2013. OECD Publishing. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/migr_outlook-2013-en.

Pitea, Roberto (2010). Transit migration: challenges in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon. CARIM Research Reports 2010/02. San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy: Institut universitaire européen, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. Available from http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/15290/CARIM_RR_2010_02.pdf?sequence=1.

Poros, Maritsa V. (2011). Migration fundamentals—migrant social networks: vehicles for migration, integration, and development. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Available fromhttp://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=833.

Pruegger, Valerie J., and Alina Tanasescu (2007). Housing Issues of Refugees and Immigrants in Calgary. September. Available from http://www.homelesshub.ca/ResourceFiles/r5qrpj1a.pdf.

Ray, Julie, and Neli Esipova (2011). World’s potential migrants are often young, educated, well-off. Gallup World, 5 July. Available from http://www.gallup.com/poll/148376/world-potential-migrants-often-young-educated-off.aspx. Accessed 12 June 2013.

Salzano, Carmela (2013). Executive summary. In Youth, Employment and Migration—Review of MDG-F Joint Programmes: Key Findings and Achievements. [Inside cover title: Youth, Employment and Migration—MDG-F Thematic Study: Review of Key Findings and Achievements.] MDG-F Thematic Studies. United Nations Development Programme, MDG Achievement Fund. Available from http://www.mdgfund.org/sites/default/files/YEM_Thematic%20Study.pdf.

Schapendonk, Joris (2009). The dynamics of transit migration: insights into the migration process of sub-Saharan African migrants heading for Europe. Journal for Development Alternatives and Area Studies, vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 171-203.

Siddiqui, Tasneem, Rozana Rashid and Benjamin Zeitlyn (2008). Information campaigns on safe migration and pre-departure training. Sussex, United Kingdom: Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty. Available fromhttp://www.migrationdrc.org/publications/research_reports/Information_Campaigns_and_Pre_Departure_Training.pdf.

Temin, Miriam, Mark R. Montgomery, Sarah Engebretsen and Katheryn M. Barker (2013). Girls on the move: Adolescent girls and migration in the developing world. Population Council. Available from http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/2013PGY_GirlsOnTheMove.pdf

United Nations (1998). Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration, Revision 1. Statistics Papers Series M, No. 58, Rev. 1. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division New York: United Nations

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(2006). International migration and development: report of the Secretary-General. 18 May. A/60/87. Available from


(2010). Fact sheet: information and communication technology. International Year of Youth: Dialogue and Mutual Understanding, August 2010-2011. Available from http://social.un.org/youthyear/docs/IYY_Fact_Sheet_ICT_Final.pdf.

(2011). International Migration in a Globalizing World: The Role of Youth. Population Division, Technical Paper No. 2011/1. New York. Available from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/technicalpapers/TP2011-1.pdf.

(2011). Thematic panel 2: challenges to youth development and opportunities for poverty eradication, employment and sustainable development. Concept paper prepared for the 2011 High Level Meeting on Youth, General Assembly, New York, 25-26 July 2011. Available from http://www.iag-agi.org/bdf/en/corpus_document/fiche-document-1528.html.

(2012). International migration and development: report of the Secretary-General. 3 August. A/67/254. Available from http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N12/452/13/PDF/N1245213.pdf?OpenElement.

(2013a) Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision. United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2013.

(2013b). Survey on Youth Migration and Development undertaken for the 2013 United Nations World Youth Report (see annex).

(2013). Youth Migration and Development. Migration and youth left behind: summary of week 4 online discussions for the 2013 World Youth Report, Michael Boampong and Abby Generalia, moderators. Available from http://unworldyouthreport.org/images/docs/summary_week_4_online_discussions.pdf.

(2013). Youth Migration and Development. Preparing to migrate: summary of week 1 online discussions for the 2013 World Youth Report, Michael Boampong and Dyane Epstein, moderators. Available fromhttp://www.unworldyouthreport.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&layout=item&id=80&Itemid=212.

(2013). Youth Migration and Development. Return/no return migration of youth migrants: summary of week 3 online discussions for the 2013 World Youth Report, Michael Boampong and Miriam Finseth, moderators. Available fromhttp://unworldyouthreport.org/images/docs/summary_week_3_online_discussions.pdf.

(2013). Youth Migration and Development. Youth and labour migration: summary of week 5 online discussions for the 2013 World Youth Report, Michael Boampong, Gianni Rosas and Min Ji Kim, moderators. Available fromhttp://unworldyouthreport.org/images/docs/summary_week_5_online_discussions.pdf.

(2013). Youth Migration and Development. Youth migrant’s [sic] experiences in transit countries: summary of week 2 online discussions for the 2013 World Youth Report, Michael Boampong, Ahmeda Mansaray-Richardson and Christopher Hoffman, moderators. Available from http://www.unworldyouthreport.org/images/docs/summary_week_2_online_discussions.pdf.

(2013). Youth Migration and Development. Youth migration: challenges and opportunities of migrant youth in destination countries: summary of online discussions for the 2013 World Youth Report, Michael Boampong and Gavaza Maluleke, moderators. Available from http://www.unworldyouthreport.org/images/docs/summary_week_2_part2_online_discussions.pdf.

(2013). International Migration 2013: Age and Sex Distribution (Population Facts No. 2013/4). Available from http://esa.un.org/unmigration/documents/PF_age_migration_FINAL_10.09.2013.pdf

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United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2012). Internal Migration in India Initiative: For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India—Policy Briefs. New Delhi: UNESCO New Delhi Office and UNICEF India. October. Available from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002191/219173e.pdf.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2011). Impact of Remittances on Poverty in Developing Countries. Geneva: United Nations. Available from http://unctad.org/en/Docs/ditctncd20108_en.pdf.

United Nations Development Programme (2009). Human Development Report 2009—Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. New York. Available from http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2013). Institute for Statistics Global flow of tertiary-level students. Available from http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Pages/international-student-flow-viz.aspx. Accessed 21 August 2013.

(n.d.(a)) Conventions on the recognition of qualifications. Links to each convention available from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13880&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

(n.d.). UNESCO’s contribution to the Global Consultative Forum within the United Nations on International Migration: Promoting the Human Face of Migration.

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (2013). Domestic workers’ rights move closer to becoming reality worldwide. International Domestic Workers’ NetWork, 14 June. Available fromhttp://www.idwn.info/news/domestic-workers-rights-move-closer-becoming-reality-worldwide.

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Vertovec, Steven (2004). Cheap calls: the social glue of migrant transnationalism. Global Networks, vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 219–224.

World Bank (2006). World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/09/13/000112742_20060913111024/Rendered/PDF/359990WDR0complete.pdf.

(2013a). Migration and Development Brief 20. 19 April. Available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934-1288990760745/MigrationDevelopmentBrief20.pdf.

(2013b). Migration and Development Brief 21 (2 October 2013), available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934-1288990760745/MigrationandDevelopmentBrief21.pdf

World Bank, European Commission, African Development Bank and the International Organization for Migration (2013). Send Money Africa. July. Available fromhttp://sendmoneyafrica.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/SMA_report_July_2013_FINAL.pdf.

Young People We Care (2009). Youth online consultation on migration and development. Available from http://groups.tigweb.org/migration/documents/

Zenou, Yves, and Jackline Wahba (2012). Do return migrants need their social capital for entrepreneurship? VoxEU, 19 August. Available from http://www.voxeu.org/article/do-return-migrants-need-their-social-capital-entrepreneurship.

Zohry, Ayman (2003). The place of Egypt in the regional migration system as a receiving country. Revue européenne des migrations internationales, vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 129-149. Available from http://remi.revues.org/2664.

(2006). Egyptian Youth and the European Eldorado: Journeys of Hope and Despair. DIIS Working Paper No. 2006/18. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies. Available fromhttp://subweb.diis.dk/graphics/Publications/WP2006/WP2006-18_web.pdf.

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