UN World Youth Report

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Join the e-consultation
Join the e-consultation

Join the e-consultation (6)

To solicit youth perspectives on migration, the United Nations Focal Point on Youth is organizing a 5 week (from 23 January – 6 March 2013) consultative process with young migrants and other young people affected by migration. Interactive consultations, via online platforms, surveys, social media, and direct outreach to young migrants via email and through organizations working on youth migration issues will be harnessed to ensure that the consultation reaches relevant young people. These consultations will commence on the 23rd January 2013.

The key issues to be discussed during the weekly e-consultations (from 23 January – 6 March 2013) include:

The various questions that will be discussed will enable young people contribute their personal stories and perspectives on how migration affects them.

Each week we will invite a guest moderator to drive the discussion with a lead moderator. He/She kicks of the discussion each day with a new question linked to the week’s theme.  Once the question is posted, you are free to join in, tell us what you think, talk to each other, and tell us what really matters. We don't just want your answers; we want to get you interacting and promote a real discussion on the issue at hand.

How to participate in the e-consultation

  • Regularly visit the weekly discussions page during the 4 week e-consultation period from 23 January – 24 February 2013. To visit the relevant discussion page, please follow these easy steps:
    • Log on to : www.unworldyouthreport.org  and click on the “HAVE YOUR SAY IN 2013” menu
    • Follow the “Join the e-consultation” menu and click on the relevant week’s discussion (for example Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 5)
  • Read the background information to understand the context of the issue and respond to questions that will be posted daily. Each day of the week the United Nations Focal Point on Youth shall post 2-3 questions which we will encourage you to share your perspectives on issue being discussed.
  • To share your comments, you can log in with your Facebook, Twitter or Gmail account. Alternatively you can sign up with your email account either Yahoo or others via Disqus.
  • After the above steps you are now set to type and send us your comments or responses.
  • Since we want to capture the voices of youth, we encourage you to share your personal experiences in responding to the questions for the week, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant or a child/relative of a migrant.
  • Whenever you post a comment please add your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organization (if any).
  • We welcome comments in Spanish and French. We have installed a Google translator on this website for participants who would like to translate information on this website (see above).
  • For technical issues, please write to  us at : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it with the subject line UN World Youth Report: Youth Migration

Organizations working at the national, regional and global levels will be contacted. If you or your organization is interested in collaborating with us in spreading the word about this consultation, conducting field surveys with our questionnaires and engaging young migrants to get their voices heard through our consultative processes, please email us at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it with the subject line : UN World Youth Report : Youth Migration.

4-5 young people who demonstrate active participation in the e-consultations will be invited to participate in a Google+ Hangout with expert panelists. So get ready to be as active!

 


 


Migration and Youth left behind

Migration and Youth left behind (0)

NOTE: The Week 4 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from this e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.

 


 

Congratulations to all the young people who have provided comments to the discussions so far!!! For those who are joining us for the first time, welcome to the fourth week of our e-discussion on youth migration. You have the opportunity to answer the questions for today and yesterday's. During the past weeks, young people have shared their ideas, stories and experience on the pre-migration process, staying in transit, their experiences in destination countries as well as how migration affects them when they choose to return or not return to their country of origin.

From 14-18 February 2013, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities that young people face when they are left behind by their migrant parents (Please scroll down this page for today's questions and comment below).

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 2-3 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day for this consultation. This e-discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderator and Abby Generalia. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your ideas and personal experiences, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant, a child/relative of a migrant or a young person with ideas on the subject being discussed.

Meet the Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator

Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 

Abby Generalia, Guest moderator

Abby Generalia was one of the finalists to The 2011 World Bank International Essay Competition on Youth Migration. Her interest on migration issues was mainly drawn from her experience as a child of an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW). Abby obtained a Bachelor's degree in Journalism from the University of the Philippines and is currently in the institution’s Master’s program in Asian Studies. Her research interests include migration, tourism, environmental policies, soft power, media and popular culture. She also currently works for the World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila.

 

Background:

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if applicable).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to youth@un.org.

For a number of reasons, including the desire to improve their family’s economic and social conditions, many parents and caretakers choose to their leave children and families behind in their country of origin for better prospects in other countries.

Often the children (including young people age 15-35 years) of migrants are left in the care of their spouses, immediate relatives, or close friends. Others who find themselves with no caretakers for their children make the difficult decision to leave their children to care for themselves.

The phenomenon of transnational families - families whose members spend a significant portion of time separated from each other in different countries - contradicts the traditional concept of family which is that of a single household of family members playing particularly norm-dictated familial roles. However, studies show that in many cases, children of migrants are particularly impacted by their parent’s physical absence. While the situation may prove to have a positive impact on young people’s social and economic status, they may suffer emotional, psychological and social consequences of their parent’s absence. There are also potential negative outcomes in which sometimes young people left behind may be left to face intimidation and abuse at the hands of others as well as the emotional, psychological and social consequences of their parent’s absence.

Your experiences, views and opinions on this issue are most welcome. We would appreciate hearing from you with regard to the questions below:

 


 

Day/theme Questions
14 February 2013 (Migration and transnationalism)
  1. Are you a member of a transnational family? What was your reaction when you first found out about your parent/parents decision to migrate? Did you feel the decision was necessary?
  2. Who cared for you in your parent’s absence? How would you describe your life satisfaction during the time spent with the caretaker? Were you assigned additional responsibilities?
  3. Did your parents migrate regularly or irregularly? From your or other youth’s experience – is there a noticeable difference for children of documented versus undocumented migrants? If yes, please explain
15 February 2013 (Opportunities and challenges of transnationalism)
  1. Do feel comfortable or stressed with your parent/parents living abroad? How has the migration of your parent/parents changed your socio-economic status in your country? What has been the positive and negative consequences of your parent/parents absence on your personal development? For example, how do you think this has affected your education, health and social condition?
  2. Drawing from your own or other young people’s experiences, how do you think a transnational family impacts intergenerational relationships (eg. your relationship with your migrant parent/parents, your relationship with your aunt or uncle who is now taking care of you, siblings, etc.) within a family?
  3. Have you noticed any changes in the gender roles played by the members of your family? For example, if your mother is currently abroad and your father is the one taking care of you and doing all the household chores, how does you, or your community more generally, perceive such changes? Or For example, if your father is currently abroad does your mother bring in more income; does she take more part in your education? Do you notice other changes?
17 February 2013 (Migration, communication and remittances)
  1. How often did/do you communicate with your migrant parent/s and how did you do so? For instance did you communicate daily, weekly or monthly, etc.? Did you use telephone, email, postal mails to communicate, etc.?
  2. How often did/do your parent/s send you money or other presents? What did you use the money for? For instance did you receive money or goods (such as cloths, toys and books) weekly, monthly or yearly? Did you use the money to pay for schools fees and other education costs, buy cloths, etc.?
  3. What did/do you send to your parents or family member living abroad? For instance did/do you send them photos, gifts, drawings, examples of school work, tape recordings or videos, etc.?
18 February 2013 (Policy and practice: recommendations for action)
  1. To what extent are youth organizations as well as government and non-governmental organizations addressing psycho-social impacts of migration on young people who have to grown up with physically absent parent/parents? Can you think of any particular programs launched by government or non-government organizations in this direction? For instance are you aware of any special programs for guardians of children of migrants or any programs that allow young people to work with other stakeholders to develop projects that promote access to special education; provide financial literacy for saving of remittances; and offer communication technologies that support families to maintain relationships across borders?
  2. What do you think young people including youth organizations like you can do to assist other young people from transnational families to reduce the negative impacts of migration on their lives?
  3. What recommendations do you have for government and civil society to address issues involving young people left behind by their migrant parent/parents?

View items
Youth and Labour Migration

Youth and Labour Migration (0)

NOTE: The Week 5 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from this e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.


 

Welcome to the last week of our e-discussion on youth migration. From 19-24 February 2013, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities that youth face in labour migration (Please scroll down this page for today's questions).For those who are joining us for the first time you have the chance to respond to the questions for today and other previous ones.

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 3-4 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day for this consultation. This e-discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderators from the International Labour Organization (ILO), Gianni Rosas and Min Ji Kim. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your ideas and personal experiences.

Meet the Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator

Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 

Gianni Rosas, Guest Moderator

Gianni Rosas has been long active in the promotion of youth employment. He is the coordinator of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) Youth Employment Programme. He joined the ILO in 1996 when he served as associate expert in employment and training in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He has held several positions both at Geneva headquarters and in the field as member of the ILOs technical cooperation team on employment and training, skills development officer and employment specialist. He participated in the review of the mandate and policy messages of the ILO on youth employment and developed several country programmes on this topic. He has published papers and developed guides and manuals on youth employment. Furthermore, Gianni is very involved in youth employment and migration initiatives. He is the coordinator of the Knowledge Management Facility on youth employment and migration of the UNDP-Spain Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F).

Min Ji Kim, Guest Moderator

Min Ji Kim is the associate expert in international labour migration in the International Migration Branch (MIGRANT) of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland, where she works extensively on the international migration trends of young people. She wrote her MA thesis on the debates around national identity and naturalisation as it concerns young, second-generation migrants.

 

 

Background:

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if applicable).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to youth@un.org.

Young people remain particularly stricken by the youth employment crisis. Currently, some 73.8 million young people are unemployed globally and the slowdown in economic activity is likely to push another half million into unemployment by 2014. In many countries, the unemployment scenario is further aggravated by the work of large numbers of young people in poor quality and low paid jobs with intermittent and insecure work arrangements, including activity in the informal economy. Even more youth are either poor or underemployed: some 228 million young people earn less than US$2 per day.

The youth employment crisis pushes millions of young women and men towards the decision to migrate with the purpose of seeking alternatives to improve their job prospects. Many of them migrate to urban areas and big cities within their country, or seek new opportunities in foreign countries. Roughly 27 million leave their countries of birth to seek employment abroad as international migrants.

International/internal migration can bring new opportunities, particularly in terms of employment and training, but young workers, especially females and those in irregular situations face certain challenges and vulnerabililities in the migration process. In many cases international migration has a positive impact on young workers, allowing them to obtain a better remunerated job, gain experience, build self-confidence, and acquire skills and competencies beneficial to themselves and their countries and communities of origin. In some cases, however, labour migration can lead young people into vulnerable situations associated with poor working conditions, discrimination based on gender, ethnicity or religion, lack of social protection and in the worst cases, human trafficking and forced labour. The labour migration experience can end up representing either an opportunity or a risk for young people and can either lead them to decent work or its very opposite, depending on policies and measures supporting them, such as provision of a better linkage to the world of work, more and better social protection, education and training for employment, training and entrepreneurship development, social inclusion and an effective institutional framework.

Your experiences, views and opinions on this issue are most welcome. We would appreciate hearing from you with regard to the questions below:

 

Questions

 

DAY 3 – 21-24 February 2013

 

  1. Do you know a good practice on youth employment and migration? Are young people specifically referenced in migration laws/policies, regulations and programmes? Please share some examples.
  2. What is the role of social networks and associations in creating awareness on available jobs in other countries? Are youth-led organizations involved in addressing labour migration concerns? Share examples with us and your experience.
  3. What is your/young migrants experience in re-integrating into your/their country and labour market? Is there information available on job opportunities, financial and non-financial incentives for returning young migrants? Are there support measures?

 

 

 

 

DAY 2 – 20 February 2013

 

  1. What kinds of jobs are available for young migrants in the destination city/country? What are typical occupations for young women migrant and for young men migrant? Do you believe there are limitations? How long did it take you to find a job after migrating? Are your employment prospects looking better?
  2. After migration, what are the barriers or opportunities that you/young migrants face in finding a job? What are the differences between young men migrant and young women migrant in this regard? Do you think that your work in the destination country corresponds with your educational or training qualifications? Tell us your experience.
  3. What are the working conditions of young migrant workers? If you have left your country/city to find a job, are you working under good conditions as related to for instance wages, working hours, benefits, insurance, etc.? Do you have rights at work? Do you receive fair remuneration?

 

 

DAY 1 – 19 February 2013

  1. What are the causes or motivations of youth labour migration? Are they different from those of older migrants?
  2. What are the labour market prospects in your community or country? Tell us your experience in migrating in your own country or to a foreign country to find work. Has the current employment situation in your community affected your decision to migrate? How?
  3. What are the challenges that you/young migrants face in the transition from school to work? In your community, does education translate to decent work? Do you have to go elsewhere to find a job that matches your studies?
  4. Before migration, were you aware of the rights at work and working conditions of young migrant workers in the destination country? If yes, how did you learn about the rights of young migrant workers?

View items

NOTE: The Week 1 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from the week 1 e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.

 

 


 

Thank you and congratulations to all those who have contributed to the discussion so far on the experiences of in the pre-migration process! We are so pleased with the interesting comments that have been shared. We still want to keep this platform very conversational so please keep on commenting and sharing your thoughts with all of us! Today we will discuss how to promote safe migration options among young people and the role of youth organizations in this ( For the questions for today, Monday, 28 January 2013, please scroll down this page).

For those of you who are joining us for the first time, welcome to the first segment of a series of e-discussions on youth migration and development! You still have an opportunity to share your comments on today and last week Friday's questions. In this week's consultation, we are exploring the experiences and perspectives of young people when they plan or are preparing to migrate from their country of origin to another (host/destination country). Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 2-3 questions relating to “preparing to migrate” will be posted each day -between Wednesday, 23 January to Monday, 28 January 2013 - for the Week 1 consultation. This week’s discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderator, Dyane Epstein. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your personal experiences, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant or a child/relative of a migrant.

Meet the Week 1 Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator
Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 


Dyane Epstein, Guest moderator
Dyane Epstein has over 18 years of work experience in national and international programme development and management, including over 12 years of work experience with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on a variety of migration-related programmes and projects. These have included emergency response, migration and development, assisted voluntary return and reintegration, counter-trafficking, policy development, refugee resettlement, labour migration, migration health, information campaigns, and strategic plan development. She is currently Chief of Mission for IOM Ghana where she has worked since 2009.


 

Background

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if any).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

According to a UN report, young people represent a major proportion of those migrating annually given that in many cases, the age range 18 to 29 accounts for between 36 per cent and 57 per cent of international migrants who have left their homes and families to pursue dreams of success, start new lives and/or temporarily relocate to study or work. How did they plan their journey? Setting a date, mobilizing funds, identifying a destination country, communicating with family and friends in preferred destination countries, identifying a school or job outside their country of origin and booking travel arrangements are some of the basics involved in traveling abroad. However, migrants, especially youth are at risk of exploitation, physical abuse, psychological stress and barriers to their planned success unless they take the time to make an informed and safe decision about their journey and communicate with family and friends.

Young people who lack information on how to migrate legally are more likely to travel without proper documentation and/or may rely on ‘shady agents’ who could deliberately lead them into situations of forced labour or trafficking under dangerous and deadly conditions such as hunger and physical exhaustion and abuse. It is therefore critical that all migrants, especially youth, are aware of the risks and consequences of irregular migration and their basic rights and obligations as workers or students abroad.

It is also important to consider that many youth do not have time to prepare and are forced into situations of migration or displacement, as is the case in natural disasters or conflict situations, and still others are feeling the consequences of the global recession with a lack of employment opportunities for migrants or inability to have visas renewed, which could force those migrants into more risky employment situations and situations of irregularity.

 


Day Question
Wednesday, 23 January 2013
  1. Do you intend to migrate or have you migrated already? If so, what are your main reasons for migrating from your country or city to another location?
  2. When considering migration, would you choose to move within your country to another village or city prior to attempting an international journey? Please explain, if possible from a personal experience.
  3. Who influenced your decision to migrate or how do you think others influence youth to migrate? Be specific, including social, economic or other concerns for you, your family or friends. One example, how do your parents feel about your decision to migrate?
Thursday, 24 January 2013
  1. What unique challenges face youth who are preparing to migrate and how different can this be in relation to other migrant groups (such as children or the elderly)? Also share with us any gender concerns. For instance, if young females have any unique challenges as compared to young males
  2. What are the main obstacles preventing some youth from migrating legally or with proper travel documentation? Can you identify the risks/consequences associated with migrating outside of legal channels?
  3. Are you aware of your rights as a migrant or migrants’ rights? If yes, how did you learn about your rights as a migrant?
Friday, 25 January 2013
  1. Share with us how you as a migrant or other young migrants finance your/their migration to other countries? To what extent do you think the cost to travel from your city or country, does impact your or other young people’s decision to migrate legally or illegally?
  2. In your country, what resources or services are available to assist youth with the pre-migration process? In what ways can youth organizations and relevant stakeholders assist youth in the planning process of migration?
  3. How do you or other young people use technology, for instance internet in your/their preparations to migrate? How could current technology be better utilized to inform youth about making safe migration choices?
Monday, 28 January 2013
  1. What are the best ways to reach out to youth on safe migration options, processes, etc.?
  2. What are you or youth organizations in your country/community doing to inform other young people about safe migration options and the dangers associated with irregular/undocumented migration?
  3. If you are a migrant or a return migrant, what two top pieces of advice would you provide to youth or your friends who are preparing to migrate?

NOTE: The Week 5 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from this e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.


 

Welcome to the last week of our e-discussion on youth migration. From 19-24 February 2013, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities that youth face in labour migration (Please scroll down this page for today's questions).For those who are joining us for the first time you have the chance to respond to the questions for today and other previous ones.

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 3-4 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day for this consultation. This e-discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderators from the International Labour Organization (ILO), Gianni Rosas and Min Ji Kim. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your ideas and personal experiences.

Meet the Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator

Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 

Gianni Rosas, Guest Moderator

Gianni Rosas has been long active in the promotion of youth employment. He is the coordinator of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) Youth Employment Programme. He joined the ILO in 1996 when he served as associate expert in employment and training in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He has held several positions both at Geneva headquarters and in the field as member of the ILOs technical cooperation team on employment and training, skills development officer and employment specialist. He participated in the review of the mandate and policy messages of the ILO on youth employment and developed several country programmes on this topic. He has published papers and developed guides and manuals on youth employment. Furthermore, Gianni is very involved in youth employment and migration initiatives. He is the coordinator of the Knowledge Management Facility on youth employment and migration of the UNDP-Spain Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F).

Min Ji Kim, Guest Moderator

Min Ji Kim is the associate expert in international labour migration in the International Migration Branch (MIGRANT) of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland, where she works extensively on the international migration trends of young people. She wrote her MA thesis on the debates around national identity and naturalisation as it concerns young, second-generation migrants.

 

 

Background:

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if applicable).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Young people remain particularly stricken by the youth employment crisis. Currently, some 73.8 million young people are unemployed globally and the slowdown in economic activity is likely to push another half million into unemployment by 2014. In many countries, the unemployment scenario is further aggravated by the work of large numbers of young people in poor quality and low paid jobs with intermittent and insecure work arrangements, including activity in the informal economy. Even more youth are either poor or underemployed: some 228 million young people earn less than US$2 per day.

The youth employment crisis pushes millions of young women and men towards the decision to migrate with the purpose of seeking alternatives to improve their job prospects. Many of them migrate to urban areas and big cities within their country, or seek new opportunities in foreign countries. Roughly 27 million leave their countries of birth to seek employment abroad as international migrants.

International/internal migration can bring new opportunities, particularly in terms of employment and training, but young workers, especially females and those in irregular situations face certain challenges and vulnerabililities in the migration process. In many cases international migration has a positive impact on young workers, allowing them to obtain a better remunerated job, gain experience, build self-confidence, and acquire skills and competencies beneficial to themselves and their countries and communities of origin. In some cases, however, labour migration can lead young people into vulnerable situations associated with poor working conditions, discrimination based on gender, ethnicity or religion, lack of social protection and in the worst cases, human trafficking and forced labour. The labour migration experience can end up representing either an opportunity or a risk for young people and can either lead them to decent work or its very opposite, depending on policies and measures supporting them, such as provision of a better linkage to the world of work, more and better social protection, education and training for employment, training and entrepreneurship development, social inclusion and an effective institutional framework.

Your experiences, views and opinions on this issue are most welcome. We would appreciate hearing from you with regard to the questions below:

 

Questions

 

DAY 3 – 21-24 February 2013

 

  1. Do you know a good practice on youth employment and migration? Are young people specifically referenced in migration laws/policies, regulations and programmes? Please share some examples.
  2. What is the role of social networks and associations in creating awareness on available jobs in other countries? Are youth-led organizations involved in addressing labour migration concerns? Share examples with us and your experience.
  3. What is your/young migrants experience in re-integrating into your/their country and labour market? Is there information available on job opportunities, financial and non-financial incentives for returning young migrants? Are there support measures?

 

 

 

 

DAY 2 – 20 February 2013

 

  1. What kinds of jobs are available for young migrants in the destination city/country? What are typical occupations for young women migrant and for young men migrant? Do you believe there are limitations? How long did it take you to find a job after migrating? Are your employment prospects looking better?
  2. After migration, what are the barriers or opportunities that you/young migrants face in finding a job? What are the differences between young men migrant and young women migrant in this regard? Do you think that your work in the destination country corresponds with your educational or training qualifications? Tell us your experience.
  3. What are the working conditions of young migrant workers? If you have left your country/city to find a job, are you working under good conditions as related to for instance wages, working hours, benefits, insurance, etc.? Do you have rights at work? Do you receive fair remuneration?

 

 

DAY 1 – 19 February 2013

  1. What are the causes or motivations of youth labour migration? Are they different from those of older migrants?
  2. What are the labour market prospects in your community or country? Tell us your experience in migrating in your own country or to a foreign country to find work. Has the current employment situation in your community affected your decision to migrate? How?
  3. What are the challenges that you/young migrants face in the transition from school to work? In your community, does education translate to decent work? Do you have to go elsewhere to find a job that matches your studies?
  4. Before migration, were you aware of the rights at work and working conditions of young migrant workers in the destination country? If yes, how did you learn about the rights of young migrant workers?

NOTE: The Week 4 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from this e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.

 


 

Congratulations to all the young people who have provided comments to the discussions so far!!! For those who are joining us for the first time, welcome to the fourth week of our e-discussion on youth migration. You have the opportunity to answer the questions for today and yesterday's. During the past weeks, young people have shared their ideas, stories and experience on the pre-migration process, staying in transit, their experiences in destination countries as well as how migration affects them when they choose to return or not return to their country of origin.

From 14-18 February 2013, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities that young people face when they are left behind by their migrant parents (Please scroll down this page for today's questions and comment below).

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 2-3 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day for this consultation. This e-discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderator and Abby Generalia. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your ideas and personal experiences, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant, a child/relative of a migrant or a young person with ideas on the subject being discussed.

Meet the Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator

Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 

Abby Generalia, Guest moderator

Abby Generalia was one of the finalists to The 2011 World Bank International Essay Competition on Youth Migration. Her interest on migration issues was mainly drawn from her experience as a child of an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW). Abby obtained a Bachelor's degree in Journalism from the University of the Philippines and is currently in the institution’s Master’s program in Asian Studies. Her research interests include migration, tourism, environmental policies, soft power, media and popular culture. She also currently works for the World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila.

 

Background:

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if applicable).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

For a number of reasons, including the desire to improve their family’s economic and social conditions, many parents and caretakers choose to their leave children and families behind in their country of origin for better prospects in other countries.

Often the children (including young people age 15-35 years) of migrants are left in the care of their spouses, immediate relatives, or close friends. Others who find themselves with no caretakers for their children make the difficult decision to leave their children to care for themselves.

The phenomenon of transnational families - families whose members spend a significant portion of time separated from each other in different countries - contradicts the traditional concept of family which is that of a single household of family members playing particularly norm-dictated familial roles. However, studies show that in many cases, children of migrants are particularly impacted by their parent’s physical absence. While the situation may prove to have a positive impact on young people’s social and economic status, they may suffer emotional, psychological and social consequences of their parent’s absence. There are also potential negative outcomes in which sometimes young people left behind may be left to face intimidation and abuse at the hands of others as well as the emotional, psychological and social consequences of their parent’s absence.

Your experiences, views and opinions on this issue are most welcome. We would appreciate hearing from you with regard to the questions below:

 


 

Day/theme Questions
14 February 2013 (Migration and transnationalism)
  1. Are you a member of a transnational family? What was your reaction when you first found out about your parent/parents decision to migrate? Did you feel the decision was necessary?
  2. Who cared for you in your parent’s absence? How would you describe your life satisfaction during the time spent with the caretaker? Were you assigned additional responsibilities?
  3. Did your parents migrate regularly or irregularly? From your or other youth’s experience – is there a noticeable difference for children of documented versus undocumented migrants? If yes, please explain
15 February 2013 (Opportunities and challenges of transnationalism)
  1. Do feel comfortable or stressed with your parent/parents living abroad? How has the migration of your parent/parents changed your socio-economic status in your country? What has been the positive and negative consequences of your parent/parents absence on your personal development? For example, how do you think this has affected your education, health and social condition?
  2. Drawing from your own or other young people’s experiences, how do you think a transnational family impacts intergenerational relationships (eg. your relationship with your migrant parent/parents, your relationship with your aunt or uncle who is now taking care of you, siblings, etc.) within a family?
  3. Have you noticed any changes in the gender roles played by the members of your family? For example, if your mother is currently abroad and your father is the one taking care of you and doing all the household chores, how does you, or your community more generally, perceive such changes? Or For example, if your father is currently abroad does your mother bring in more income; does she take more part in your education? Do you notice other changes?
17 February 2013 (Migration, communication and remittances)
  1. How often did/do you communicate with your migrant parent/s and how did you do so? For instance did you communicate daily, weekly or monthly, etc.? Did you use telephone, email, postal mails to communicate, etc.?
  2. How often did/do your parent/s send you money or other presents? What did you use the money for? For instance did you receive money or goods (such as cloths, toys and books) weekly, monthly or yearly? Did you use the money to pay for schools fees and other education costs, buy cloths, etc.?
  3. What did/do you send to your parents or family member living abroad? For instance did/do you send them photos, gifts, drawings, examples of school work, tape recordings or videos, etc.?
18 February 2013 (Policy and practice: recommendations for action)
  1. To what extent are youth organizations as well as government and non-governmental organizations addressing psycho-social impacts of migration on young people who have to grown up with physically absent parent/parents? Can you think of any particular programs launched by government or non-government organizations in this direction? For instance are you aware of any special programs for guardians of children of migrants or any programs that allow young people to work with other stakeholders to develop projects that promote access to special education; provide financial literacy for saving of remittances; and offer communication technologies that support families to maintain relationships across borders?
  2. What do you think young people including youth organizations like you can do to assist other young people from transnational families to reduce the negative impacts of migration on their lives?
  3. What recommendations do you have for government and civil society to address issues involving young people left behind by their migrant parent/parents?

NOTE: The Week 3 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from the week 3 e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.

 


 

Congratulations to all the young people who have provided comments to the discussions so far!!! For those who are joining us for the first time, welcome to the third week of our e-discussion on youth migration. You have the chance to respond to the questions for today and other previous ones. During the past weeks, young people have shared their ideas, stories and experience on the pre-migration process, staying in transit and their experiences in destination countries.

From 7-13 February 2013, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities that migration presents for those young migrants who have returned to the country of origin or are deciding not to return (Please scroll down this page for today's questions and comment below).

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 2-3 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day for this consultation. This e-discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderators, Miriam Finseth and Arpitha Upendra. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your personal experiences, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant or a child/relative of a migrant.

Meet the Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator

Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 

Miriam Finseth, Guest moderator

Miriam Finseth has completed a BA in Development Studies at the University of Oslo, Norway. She takes a special interest in the field of migration and has done research on the contribution of diaspora and return migrants to development in the country of origin. She does volunteer work to support young asylum seekers in their application period. Next fall she will be undertaking a MSc in International Migration and Public Policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

 

Arpitha Upendra, Guest moderator

Arpitha Upendra is an environmental lawyer and consultant with Natural Justice where her work focuses on recognition of biocultural rights and the formulation of biocultural community protocols (BCPs) with a focus on internal tribal migration. Her interest has always been to bring in interdisciplinary perspectives into the implementation and understanding of environmental law. As a research intern at Yale University Center of Interdisciplinary Bioethics she worked on a paper critiquing the international legal framework on genetically modified foods through the perspective of environmental ethics and industrial ecology. She was also awarded the World Bank Essay Prize in 2011 for her essay 'Alien Lands, New Opportunities' which focuses on the ecological, cultural and social factors to internal youth migration.

Background:

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if any).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

After a period of time living in a host country some young migrants choose to return to their country of origin whereas others remain in the destination country.

To understand the dynamics of return migration, it is important to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary return. Voluntary return is often seen as a potential for development, as evidence suggests that young migrants who return to their home countries are often equipped with new skills, qualifications and economic resources that may generate positive impacts on their families and local communities. Realizing the benefits of return migration, some countries have started undertaking policies that promote sustainable return of migrants. On the other hand, young migrants facing involuntary return will more often find themselves in a difficult and vulnerable position upon returning, and may not have much to return to at all.

The decision to return is only the first step in the direction of going home to build or rebuild a life in ones country of origin. For some young migrants, the process of getting reintegrated in their home community can be challenging especially when there are no support services to facilitate return and reintegration.

Among migrants that are not returning one must also make a distinction between staying voluntarily or involuntarily. A lot of young migrants will experience different or better opportunities in a host country; some will create new relationships, make new friends and families. These migrants may voluntarily decide to settle down for good instead of returning home. There are also some migrants who find themselves in a situation where they want to return, but are unable to do so for various reasons such as lack of legal documents.

We are interested in hearing your thoughts and experiences about return/no return,if you are currently a migrant, a return migrant or are in other ways affected by migration. In your experience, what are/have been the most important concerns, challenges and successes?

Thanks a lot for sharing your stories based on the questions below!

 


 

Day/theme Questions
7 February 2013 (Motivation and influence)
  1. What are your reasons for returning or not returning to your country of origin and who has influenced this decision? Or Why do some young migrants choose to return home while others choose to stay?
  2. What are your plans for the future in the host country (if staying) or in your country of origin (if returning)?
  3. If you have returned to your country of origin, or are planning to do so, do you think that your return will be permanent or temporary? Why / why not?
8 February 2013 (Return and reintegration)
  1. What challenges have you or other migrants faced when returning to the country of origin? How can these challenges can be overcome?
  2. If you have returned to your country of origin, how is the fact that you are a return migrant affecting your life at home? For example, how do new skills and knowledge that you or other young migrants have acquired while living in another country facilitate or inhibit reintegration? And have there been any changes in your social and cultural practices or in your consumption patterns after migrating and / or after returning?
  3. In your opinion, would you say that migration has in any way improved your social and economic status? And how does this affect the process of getting reintegrated in your home community?
9 February 2013 (Involuntary return)
  1. If your return was not voluntary, how has the experience been of being returned to your country of origin against your own will? And how does this affect your situation in your home community after your return?
11 February 2013 (Social integration)
  1. Under what conditions do you think return of young migrants can be successful? What kinds of policies and programs should be developed to facilitate return of young migrants to their countries of origin? And, if you are a return migrant, what kinds of services have you been met with from governmental and/or non-governmental organizations upon returning?
  2. What measures has your community/country or organizations (including youth organizations) put in place to facilitate the social and professional reintegration of migrants?
  3. How can young people within civil society work to promote the return of young migrants for sustainable development in their country of origin? For instance can the initiation of short term projects – such as volunteering to teach or work in a hospital - with diaspora youth groups help in this respect?
12-13 February 2013 (No return)
  1. If you have decided to not return to your country of origin, how has this decision affected your life in your host country? For example, has this decision made it easier to get integrated in the society you are living in? Why / why not?
  2. For example, has this decision made it easier to get integrated in the society you are living in? Why / why not? How do you keep in touch with your home community or country? For example, do you have contact with friends and family in your country of origin? Do you participate in diaspora organizations or activities that connect you to your country of origin?
  3. If you are not able to return to your country of origin, or know someone in this situation, please share your story. Why are you “stuck” in a host country? What do you think should be done to help young migrants in this situation to be able to return home?

NOTE: The Week 2 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from the e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.


 

 

Thank you and congratulations to all those who have contributed to the discussions! For those who are joining us for the first time, welcome to the second week of our e-consultation on youth and migration! You have the opportunity to share your ideas and experiences on today an yesterday's questions (Please scroll down to see the questions) . In the last few days we have sought to understand the challenges of young migrants and other youth when they prepare to migrate and their experiences in transit countries.

In this e-consultation we would like to understand the concerns, challenges and successes experienced by young migrants in destination countries.

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 2-3 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day -between Thursday, 31  January to Wednesday, 6 February 2013 - for this consultation. This e-discussion is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderator, Gavaza Maluleke. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below this page we encourage you to share your personal experiences, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant or a child/relative of a migrant.

 

Meet the Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator
Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 


Gavaza Maluleke , Guest moderator

Gavaza Maluleke is currently a PhD candidate in the research training group “Transnational Social Support” at the University of Mainz, Germany. She was awarded a Master’s degree in Development and International Cooperation majoring in Political Science from the University of Jyväskylä. Her research interests are in African studies, Transnational feminism, Migration studies and Postcolonial theory.


 

Background

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if any).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

 

Migrant youth in destination countries are as varied in their experiences as they are in their migration patterns.  This is due to the fact that this group is not only made up of young people who have migrated to the destination countries either accompanied or unaccompanied by their parents, it also includes those who are second generation immigrants  and have lived in the destination countries all their lives but are still faced with the immigrant background question.

With these diverse backgrounds, young migrants have myriad experiences. They are faced with questions of where to settle, how to survive and what support structures, if any, are available for them in terms of getting visas, finding jobs, and accessing basic social services (especially if they are irregular migrants). Furthermore, for second generation migrants - including sons and daughters of migrants - questions of belonging and identity are part of their daily life challenges. It is also important to consider the gender dimension when it comes to young migrants as young women's experiences vary in relation to young men‘s.

 

We are interested in hearing your stories and what you have to say in response to some of the questions below:

 

 


Day Question
31 January 2013
  1. Are you a young migrant- either documented or undocumented? In which destination country/community are you based, and what has been your experience so far?
  2. What were the biggest challenges for you when you arrived and how did you deal with them? What was/were the most useful support that you recieved on arrival?
  3. Or are you a second generation migrant? What has been your experience (including challenges) as a young immigrant with your background?
1 February 2013
  1. Did you find that you were sufficiently informed about the destination country that you migrated to? Yes/No. Please explain your answer with your experience.
  2. What challenges and struggles have you been faced with in your every day life? For instance, what has been your positive or challenging experience in finding jobs, settling into school, organizing the immigration paperwork, living in a new cultural environment, communicating with natives,etc. ? Do you think this experience is different for young men and women?
4 February 2013
  1. Growing up as a second generation migrant, what systematic barriers have you dealt with when it comes to civic, education and labour market opportunities?
  2. To what extent are you involved in civic engagement activities of your community? Are there any challenges that hinder your paricipation in social and community activities? Yes/No. Please explain your answer.
5 February 2013
  1. What kind of human rights violations – for instance stereotypes,discrimination and sexual abuse - have you dealt with in your destination country, whether stemming from race, gender, ethnicity, migration status, religion or country of origin? How did you deal with this? What structures, organization, or people were there to support you?
  2. What lessons have you learnt from your experiences as a young migrant abroad? What are some of the useful ideas you would like to share with other young people in your situation or potential young migrants?
6 February 2013
  1. From your own personal experience what are the top three benefits or opportunities that migration has offered for you? Or to what extent does migration empower young people and enhances their opportunity structures and their capabilities capabilities? Please also explain how this could be different for young men and women.
  2. Mention some practical recommendations that you think youth organizations, governments and other stakeholders should focus on in efforts aimed at addressing the migration challenges and opportunities for young migrants in destination countries.

NOTE: The Week 2 e-consultation is now CLOSED. It is no longer possible to add new comments. For those of you who have not had time to read all of the comments from the week 2 e-consultation, please click here to download the summary of the discussion.


 

Thank you and congratulations to all those who have contributed to the discussions! We are so pleased with the interesting comments that have been shared. Let’s continue to keep this platform as conversational as we can by commenting and sharing your thoughts!

Welcome to the 2nd segment of our e-discussion on youth migration! This week we will be discussing the issues you face when transiting through countries and your experiences in destination countries ( For the questions for today, Wednesday, 30 January 2013, please scroll down this page).For those of you who are joining us for the first time, welcome to the second segment of a series of e-discussions on youth migration and development! You still have an opportunity to share your comments on today and last week Tuesday's questions.

Your ideas and comments on the questions below will contribute directly to the forthcoming UN World Youth Report 2013. Usually 2-3 questions relating to the issue at hand will be posted each day -between Tues, 29 January to Thursday, 7 February 2013 - for the Week 2 consultation. The e-discussion on transit migration is moderated by Michael Boampong and our guest moderators, Mariama Ahmeda Mansaray-Richardson and Christopher Hoffman. Our moderators will be online to keep the discussion active. Please note that in responding to the questions below we encourage you to share your personal experiences, especially if you are a young migrant, return migrant or a child/relative of a migrant.

Meet the Week 2 Moderators:

Michael Boampong, Lead moderator

Michael Boampong has been actively engaged in youth development and migration issues since 2005. He has worked with a range of civil society organizations, youth networks and international agencies such as UNDP and UNICEF in the design and implementation of policy and field oriented initiatives that promote rights based approaches to migration, poverty reduction, social inclusion and justice.

 

Ahmeda Mansaray-Richardson, Guest moderator

Ahmeda Mansaray-Richardson, a migrant herself, is a qualitative researcher and a child protection and youth participation consultant. She is passionate about the empowerment process in youth and focuses her career researching, facilitating and participating in this process in Ghana and Canada. Her professional background includes documenting the stories of survivors of childhood sexual abuse and conducting assessments on youth focused health programs. A paladin for community driven health initiatives, she trains youth in skills to design, implement and evaluate their own health projects. She has a BSc from McGill University and a Masters in Public Health from Lakehead University. She currently runs a global youth empowerment and participation organization called V.O.I.C.E.S. In her spare-time she loves to create culinary magic and to fly single engine planes.

Christopher Hoffman, Guest moderator

Christopher Hoffman, is an Emergency and Post Crisis Specialist, IOM Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok . Christopher has concentrated his work with IOM on dealing directly with those affected by conflict and natural disasters, and in his current position provides support to 27 IOM Missions, spread out over 56 countries and territories. Chris’ past work has been split between East Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Chris holds a Master’s Degree in Project Management MPM and Bachelors in both International Business and International Relations. Chris has coordinated air and ground logistics activities in over 12 countries over the last 10 years. Chris was a youth migrant from the age of 13 and understands the difficulties associated with migration as a young person.

Background:

The e-consultations is coordinated by the UN Focal Point on Youth and is opened to all young people (15-35 years) interested in migration and development issues.

Please introduce yourself when you post a comment by indicating your Name (first name & initial of last name if preferred), Age, Sex, Country and Youth Organisation (if any).

We welcome comments in Spanish and French and have installed a Google translate for translation purposes (see above).

For technical issues, please write to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Transit migration is conceived as the temporary stay in one or more countries, with the objective of reaching a further destination. Transiting can also provide a lot of opportunities for growth and learning about yourself and new environments. As the phenomenon is better understood and gains political prominence, transit migration as part of a ‘step by step’ migration flow is only now being tackled together in the context with broader migrants’ mobility patterns. There is a lack of insight into geographical mobility systems and logics and into the complex interrelations between different stages of the migratory trajectories. We need an integrated, comprehensive approach to understand all the migratory routes, from the home country, through the various stages, including transit migrations. The knowledge of the geographical and longitudinal structure of mobility is, in fact, preliminary to the understanding of migration processes and driving forces (Castagnone,2011).

 

 

 

Key questions for, Wednesday 30 January 2013 (NEW)

 

Day Question
Tuesday, 29 January 2013
  1. Was your transit country/ city/town/village by choice or by circumstance? If by choice why and if by circumstance could you tell us how you managed to be there?
  2. What was the most useful support you received when you first arrived in your transit country/ city/town/village and from whom?
Wednesday 30 January 2013
  1. How long have you stayed in your transit country and why? Has it become the home you thought your destination country might be? Please give us details on the journey for you in coming to this.
  2. How beneficial has your transit country been to you? For example, did you obtain any job with income to support your living expenses or preparation for migration to your preferred destination country? What kind of challenges do/did you face in your transit country? Please elaborate on possible language/communication challenges, gender and age aspects where possible.
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The UN Focal Point on Youth aims to build awareness of the global situation of young people, as well as promote their rights and aspirations, working toward greater participation of young people in decision-making as a means for achieving peace and development.

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